A growing movement in the world of pain is focused on increasing functionality and mental status rather than focusing on pain scores and numerical measures. Perception of pain has become a major target of our clinical focus which aids in potentially decreasing pharmacologic consumption, invasive procedures, and unhealthy patient habits that may have led to chronic pain [15
]. Future research should focus on these mechanisms of controlling chronic pain, as we attempt to decrease our healthcare costs as a country and community. In addition, more conditions should be considered when implementing CBT and CFT, as these treatment modalities consistently show positive effect sizes over several different disease mechanisms. Finally, there is a need for an updated, universally accepted methodology to direct future research as provider to provider variability is an uncontrolled, possibly troublesome variable.