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The 4R’s Framework of Nutritional Strategies for Post-Exercise Recovery: A Review with Emphasis on New Generation of Carbohydrates Several nutritional strategies may be used to optimize post-exercise recovery. The amount, composition, and timing for the consumption of fluids, electrolytes, macronutrients, antioxidants and/or supplements depend on the type of sport, the time between sessions, the level of preparation of the athlete, the convenience of the strategy, among other factors. There is not a single protocol to apply in post-exercise recovery. Based on the available evidence, we have identified a mnemonic entitled the 4R’s which stands for Rehydrate, Refuel, Repair, and Rest. These four R’s are not intending to replace the current methodologies or to establish a novel rigid paradigm in this regard, but to represent a strategic application of the nutritional strategies that should be taken into account during the recovery process. Taking into account the allostasis model, it is important to consider that each R represents a factor with tremendous influence on the allostatic response and the allostatic load that will impact the exercise-induced adaptions and recovery.
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